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ATTORNEY [ licensed to practice in KOREA, U.S.A., ILLINOIS ] LEE, JAE WOOK
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↓ H visa


Chapter 31 Petitions for Temporary Workers (H Classifications).
in [ H visa ]
Start →

31.1         Background
31.2         General Requirements for H Petitions
31.3         H1-B Classification and Documentary Requirements
31.4         Agricultural Workers (H-2A)
31.5         Temporary Service or Labor Workers (H-2B)
31.6         Trainees (H-3)
31.7         Nurses (H-1C)
31.8         Strikes and Lockouts Involving H Petition Beneficiaries
31.9         Dependents

References:
INA:
        101(a)(15)(H);
        212(m);
        212(n);
        214;
        218

Regulations:
8 CFR 214.2(h)(1)–(17);
20 CFR 655

Other:
DOL Occupational Outlook Handbook,
DOL Dictionary of Occupational Titles

Replace with a database:
O*NET replaces the Dictionary of Occupational Titles


31.1 Background.

(a) Current Law.

The present nonimmigrant temporary worker categories have changed
        a) significantly,
        b) becoming
                i) more restrictive in some ways and        
                ii) more generous in others,
                        (a) in several stages since 1986.

Current law provides for the admission
        a) of several specific categories
                i) of temporary workers
                        A) (H nonimmigrant categories, as well as
                        B) L,
                        C) O and
                        D) P categories
                                I) discussed in other chapters of this manual):

•        H-1B classification,
        a) created by Public Law 101-238 (1989)
                i) (and the Immigration Nursing Relief Act
                ii) which also created the now defunct H1-A nurse classification) and
        b) modified by Public Law 101-649 (1990)

1) is reserved
        a) for aliens
                i) employed in “specialty occupations”,
                        (a) defined as in section 214(i) and
        b) for fashion models
                i) of “distinguished merit and ability”;

•        H-1C classification,
        a) created by Public Law 106-95 (1999),

1) is reserved for registered nurses
        a) employed
                i) in specifically designated nursing shortage areas;

•        H-2A classification,
        a) created by Public Law 99-603 (1986),

1) is reserved for
        a) temporary or
        b) seasonal
                i) agricultural workers;

• H-2B classification,
        a) created by Public Law 99-603 (1986),

1) is reserved for other temporary workers;

• H-3 classification

1) is reserved for “industrial trainees”
        a) who will not
                i) primarily
                ii) be engaged in productive labor.

Each of these categories is precisely defined
        a) in section 101(a)(15)(H) of the Act and

1) the petition requirements
        a) for each

   are set out
        a) in 8 CFR 214.2(h).



(b) Prior Laws. [Revised by 1/18/11, AD11-19].

The Immigration Act of 1952 established a new nonimmigrant class
        a) of temporary workers.

In these provisions,

Congress sought to grant the Attorney General
        a) sufficient authority
                i) to admit
                        A) temporarily
                        B) certain alien workers,
                                I) industrial,
                                II) agricultural, or
                                III) otherwise,
                        C) for the purpose of
                                I) alleviating labor shortages
                                        (a) as they
                                                (i) exist or
                                                (ii) may develop
                                                        (A) in
                                                                (I) certain areas or
                                                                (II) certain branches of
                                                                        (T) American productive enterprises,
                                                        (B) particularly
                                                                (I) in periods of intensified production.

The provisions also enabled foreign trainees
        a) to acquire the knowledge of
                i) American industrial, agricultural, and business methods.


In 1970,

Congress eliminated the requirement
        a) that an alien
                i) of distinguished merit and ability

            must be coming
                i) to a temporary position.

However,

both
        a) the petitioner and
        b) the beneficiary

1) must intend that
        a) the employment be for a temporary period of time.

Also,

in that year

Congress added another new immigrant category,
        a) the L-1,
                i) intracompany transferee.

Prior to 1989,

there were three H nonimmigrant worker classifications.

The H-1 category included all “persons
        a) of distinguished merit and ability”
                
1) which was generously interpreted
        a) to include all persons
                i) engaged in occupations
                        A) which required a bachelor’s degree or equivalent.

Also included were
        a) registered nurses,
        b) athletes,
        c) artists and
        d) entertainers.

There was no maximum time limit
        a) on the total
                i) period of stay or
                ii) number of extensions
                        (a) which could be approved
                                (i) for an H-1,

1) although
        a) in practice
        b) an H-1
                i) requesting an extension
                        (a) beyond five years

           was generally denied
                i) as an “intending immigrant.”

There was no limit
        a) on the number of H-1 aliens
                i) who could be admitted to the United States
        b) on an annual basis,

1) nor was there any labor market test
        a) required.

Among the professions,

only medical doctors,
        a) other than those
                i) entering to perform
                        A) teaching or
                        B) research,

1) were precluded
        a) from the H-1 classification.

In 1986,

Pub. L 99-603 created a separate H-2A category
        a) for temporary/seasonal
                i) agricultural workers.

Other temporary workers were redesignated
        a) as H-2B.


In 1989,

Pub. L. 101-238 created a separate category (H-1A)
        a) for registered nurses.

This Act also redesignated the existing H-1 category
        a) as H1-B.

The H-1A category was permitted
        a) to sunset on September 1, 1995,
        b) with some nurses
                i) granted extensions in the category
                        (a) through September 30, 1997.

On November 12, 1999,

the category was replaced
        a) by the present, more restrictive, H-1C category
                i) created by Pub. L. 106-95.

In 1990,

        a) athletes and
        b) entertainers, as well as
        c) prominent persons
                i) in
                        A) business,
                        B) science and
                        C) education

1) were separated
        a) into the new
                i) O and
                ii) P categories
        b) as a result of Pub. L 101-649, and
2) the definition
        a) of H-1B

    changed
        a) from an alien
                i) of “distinguished merit and ability”
        b) to one
                i) coming to perform “services
                        A) in a specialty occupation.”

In addition,

numerical limitations
        a) on new admissions
                i) of
                        A) H-1B,
                        B) H-2A and
                        C) H-2B nonimmigrants

1) were imposed
        a) for the first time.

Further,

the new law imposed a “labor condition application” provision
        a) that required the employer
                i) to pay any H-1B worker
                        A) the higher of
                                I) the actual or
                                II) prevailing wage
                                        (a) for the occupation
                                                (i) in the local area of employment.

The requirement
        a) that an alien have a residence
                i) in a foreign country
                ii) which he has no intention of abandoning

1) was also removed
        a) from
                i) the H-1 and
                ii) L
                        A) nonimmigrant classifications;
2) however,
        a) limits were imposed
                i) on the amount of time
                        A) an alien could remain
                                I) in
                                        (a) H-1B or
                                        (b) P
                                                (i) status.


        a) The H-2 and
        b) H-3 nonimmigrant classifications

1) retained the foreign residence requirement, and
2) the new
        a) O,
        b) P, and
        c) Q nonimmigrant classifications

   also required that
        a) the alien have a residence
                i) in a foreign country
                        (a) which he or she has no intention of abandoning.
In 1991,

the Miscellaneous and Technical Immigration and Naturalization Amendments
        a) further
        b) modified the H-1B definition
                i) by including fashion models in the category.


In 1998,

the American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act of 1998 (ACWIA) mandated that
        a) most H-1B petitioners pay
                i) an additional fee
                        A) (originally $500,
                        B) later raised to $1,000)
                        C) which is designated
                                I) for the funding
                                        (a) of training programs
                                                (i) for American workers.


In 2000,

three significant pieces
        a) of legislation
                i) affecting H nonimmigrants

1) were enacted.


On October 17, 2000,

the President approved enactment
        a) of The American Competitiveness
                i) in the Twenty-First Century Act of 2000 (AC21),
                        (a) Public Law 106-313.


On the same date,

the President also approved enactment of Public Law 106-311,
        a) an untitled bill
        b) to increase the fee
                i) for certain H-1B petitions.
Finally, on October 30, 2000,

the President approved enactment
        a) of Public Law 106-396,
                i) the Visa Waiver Permanent Program Act
                        (a) (Visa Waiver Act).






These amendments made the following changes:

Public Law 106-313 (AC21):
        a) Increased the numerical limitation
                i) on the H-1B nonimmigrant classification
                ii) to 195,000
                        (a) for
                                (a) fiscal year 2001
                                (b) through fiscal year 2003;
        b) Allowed for the continued H-1B employment
                i) of certain H-1B nonimmigrant aliens
                        (a) who change H-1B employers;
        c) Exempted certain H-1B nonimmigrants
                i) from the annual numerical limitation;
        d) Allowed certain aliens
                i) who have applied for adjustment of status
                        (a) to change employers
                                (i) under certain conditions;
        e) Allowed INS (now USCIS)
                i) to grant an extension of stay
                        (a) to H-1B nonimmigrant aliens
                                (i) who are the beneficiaries
                                        (A) of employment-based petitions
                                                (I) under certain circumstances;
        f) Modified the method
                i) of counting H-1B nonimmigrant aliens;
        g) Provided that
                i) certain H-1B petitions
                        (a) that are revoked
                                (i) because of fraud or willful misrepresentation

            shall be subtracted
                i) from the numerical count
                        (a) for the year
                                (i) in which the petition was revoked;

Public Law 106-311:
        a) Increased the additional filing fee
                i) for certain H-1B petitions
                ii) to $1,000,
                iii) with some exceptions; Public Law 106-396:

        b) Amended section 214 of the Act
                i) to address
                        (a) whether an amended petition is required
                                (i) of an H-1B petitioner
                        (b) when the petitioner undergoes corporate restructuring.


On November 2, 2002,

President Bush signed into law
        a) the Twenty-First Century Department of Justice Appropriations Authorization Act
                i) (21st Century DOJ Appropriations Act).

One section
        a) of the new law

1) amends §106(a)
        a) of the American Competitiveness in the Twenty-first Century Act (AC21)
        b) by making the following change:

Public Law 107-273:
        a) Removes the six-year limitation
                i) on H-1B status
                ii) for certain aliens
                        (a) on whose behalf
                                (i) an alien labor certification or
                                (ii) employment-based (EB) immigrant petition

                                    has been pending
                                        (A) for 365 days or more.



On December 8, 2004,

President George W. Bush signed the Omnibus Appropriations Act of FY 2005
        a) (also known as the H-1B Visa Reform Act)
        b) into law.

This Act:
        a) Reinstated and increased an additional filing fee
                i) to $1,500
                ii) for certain H-1B petitions
                        i) filed by petitioners
                                (a) with more than 25 employees in the United States,
                iii) with some exceptions.

                This is known
                        a) as the ACWIA
                                i) (American Competitiveness and
                                ii) Workforce Improvement Act of 1998) fee.

        b) Set the additional fee
                i) at $750
                ii) for certain H-1B petitions
                        i) filed by petitioners
                                (a) with 25 or fewer employees in the United States,
                iii) with some exceptions.

        c) Instituted a Fraud Prevention and Detection Fee
                i) of $500
                ii) for the first H-1B petition
                        (a) filed by a particular petitioner
                                (i) on behalf of a specific beneficiary
                                (ii) on or after March 8, 2005.


On August 13, 2010,

President Barack Obama signed Public Law 111-230.

Public Law 111-230:
        a) Requires the submission of an additional fee
                i) of $2,000
                ii) for certain H-1B petitions
                        (a) where those petitions are postmarked
                                (i) on or after August 14, 2010;

        b) Applies
                i) if:
                        A) The H-1B petitioner employs 50 or more employees
                                I) in the United States; and
                        B) More than 50 percent
                                I) of the petitioner’s employees
                                        (a) in the United States

                            are
                                I) in
                                        (a) H-1B,
                                        (b) L-1A, or
                                        (c) L-1B
                                                (i) nonimmigrant status; and

As originally enacted would have sunset
        a) on September 30, 2014.



However,

on January 2, 2011

President Obama signed Public Law 111-347.

Title III, section 302
        a) of that law

1) extended applicability
        a) of the fee
        b) through September 30, 2015.

cf. On and after that day, it was not extended.










31.2 General Requirements for H Petitions.

(a) General.

        a) Petition filing requirements,
        b) requirements for maintaining status and

* 관리자님에 의해서 게시물 복사되었습니다 (2016-05-11 17:52)
← End



Chapter 31 Petitions for Temporary Workers (H Classifications).
in [ H visa ]



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